Research Findings

weiner research graph

Engineering Educational Opportunity:
Impacts of 1970s and 1980s Policies to Increase the Share of Black College Graduates with Major in Engineering or Computer Science

Catherine J. Weinberger, University of California Santa Barbara weinberg@isber.ucsb.edu
Forthcoming in U.S. Engineering in the Global Economy, edited by Richard Freeman and Hal Salzman, National Bureau of Economic Research/University of Chicago Press

Opportunities for black students to study engineering were quite limited until a string of policies enacted during the 1970s and 1980s opened doors. These changes occurred at different times in different parts of the country. The graphic shown here describes changes that were concentrated in a few Northern institutions during the 1970s, followed by rapid expansion of the six engineering programs at historically black campuses (HBCU6) and opening of additional opportunities in the early 1980s. Several southern states and many northern institutions did not educate black engineering students until even later. The legacy of these patterns of change can be observed in current labor market data, revealing high current wages among individuals trained during these historic periods of expanded educational opportunity.


horner research graph

Patenting and Policy Drivers in the Wind Energy Industry, 1974-­‐2009.
Wind patents shown as a percent of patenting across all sectors (blue trend). U.S.Federal R&D dedicated to wind technology (upper half, green) shows a large investment or responding with the DOE/NASA large turbine development program in the early 1980s. A substantial investment tax credit was in place in California during the same time period. The production tax credit was enacted in 1992; by the
turn of the century, it was being renewed on a short-­‐term (annual or bi-­‐annual) basis, lapsing three times. The number of states with renewable portfolio standards (RPSs, lower half, red) has increased markedly over the past decade, and appears to be most correlated with the recent increase in patenting rate.

Further analysis can be found in Horner et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 044032 doi:10.1088/1748-­‐9326/8/4/044032

The list below displays the most recently updated research at the top of the list.

Retail electricity and photovoltaic energy

Submitted by Trancik.Jessika on

Data from the United States shows that the price of retail electricity has remained constant with no clear increasing or decreasing trend, while the cost of photovoltaic energy has dropped by more than two orders of magnitude during that same period. An investment of $200 billion would create parity between photovoltaic energy and electricity, excluding uncertainty.  (Citation:http://www.santafe.edu/~jdf/papers/DynamTechDev.pdf)

Jessica Trancik profile

SciSIP Award # 0738187 with J. Doyne Farmer, Walter Powell, Douglas Erwin, and W. Brian Arthur


Follow-on contributors in the public sector

Submitted by Murray.Fiona on

Vast and diverse ownership is an important aspect of a healthy economy, but creates significant problems for follow-on contributors in the public sector. Patent thickets can be to expensive or difficult to navigate for follow-on contributors.  (Citation: http://fmurray.scripts.mit.edu/docs/Huang.Murray_AMJ_09.16.2008_FINAL.pdf

Fiona Murray profile

SciSIP Award # 0738394 with Jeffrey Furman and Scott Stern


Follow-on research of disease genes is negatively impacted by patent law

Submitted by Murray.Fiona on

Follow-on research of disease genes is negatively impacted by patent law.   Cancer related genes suffer a negative impact on forward citations of 11% compared with 4% in the non-cancer sample. Disease genes are highly guarded because of their earnings potential. (Citation: http://fmurray.scripts.mit.edu/docs/Huang.Murray_AMJ_09.16.2008_FINAL.pdf

Fiona Murray profile

SciSIP Award # 0738394 with Jeffrey Furman and Scott Stern


Private sector has been particularly aggressive with intellectual property law enforcement

Submitted by Murray.Fiona on

There is significant evidence that the private sector has been particularly aggressive with intellectual property law enforcement targeted at other firms and public institutions. Medical –center citations rates have declined substantially in recent years. (Citation: http://fmurray.scripts.mit.edu/docs/Huang.Murray_AMJ_09.16.2008_FINAL.pdf

Fiona Murray profile

SciSIP Award # 0738394 with Jeffrey Furman and Scott Stern


Private sector patents have more of a negative impact on forward citations

Submitted by Murray.Fiona on

Private sector patents have more of a negative impact on forward citations, a decline of 6% to 9% compared to 0% to 3% for academic papers. Strict patent enforcement can lead to a blockage of follow-up research. (Citation: http://fmurray.scripts.mit.edu/docs/Huang.Murray_AMJ_09.16.2008_FINAL.pdf

Fiona Murray profile

SciSIP Award # 0738394 with Jeffrey Furman and Scott Stern


A patent-pair contributes to both the academic and industrial world

Submitted by Murray.Fiona on

Among the 4,270 patents on human genes, at least 35% are associated with gene patent-paper pairs. A patent-pair contributes to both the academic and industrial world because gene patent-paper pairs are utilized by the public and private sector to disclose findings. (Citation: http://fmurray.scripts.mit.edu/docs/Huang.Murray_AMJ_09.16.2008_FINAL.pdf

Fiona Murray profile

SciSIP Award # 0738394 with Jeffrey Furman and Scott Stern


Citation rates suffer a 24% decline the year of a patent grant

Submitted by Murray.Fiona on

Citation rates suffer a 24% decline the year of a patent grant. This negative acquiescence rate declines as year pass, while the adaptation rate rises as institutions and academics find ways to work around intellectual property laws. Over a period of years the citation rate returns back to normal as adaptation cancels out acquiescence. (Citation: http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/working_papers/20948f9816e83ffd917e0f93fd50.pdf)

Fiona Murray profile

SciSIP Award # 0738394 with Jeffrey Furman and Scott Stern


Intellectual property rights hamper innovation

Submitted by Murray.Fiona on

Intellectual property rights hamper innovation and the initial impact of a patent grant on scientific citations is negative. Nonetheless, over time researchers adapt as the impact a patent has on a grant declines over time, eventually leading to an increased rate of scientific citation. (Citation: http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/working_papers/20948f9816e83ffd917e0f93fd50.pdf)

Fiona Murray profile

SciSIP Award # 0738394 with Jeffrey Furman and Scott Stern


Citation rates suffer a 24% decline the year of a patent

Submitted by Stern.Scott on

Citation rates suffer a 24% decline the year of a patent grant. This negative acquiescence rate declines as year pass, while the adaptation rate rises as institutions and academics find ways to work around intellectual property laws. Over a period of years the citation rate returns back to normal as adaptation cancels out acquiescence. (Citation: http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/working_papers/20948f9816e83ffd917e0f93fd50.pdf)

Scott Stern's profile

SciSIP Award # 0738394 with Jeffrey Furman and Fiona Murray


Initial impact of a patent grant on scientific citations is negative

Submitted by Stern.Scott on

Intellectual property rights hamper innovation and the initial impact of a patent grant on scientific citations is negative. Nonetheless, over time researchers adapt as the impact a patent has on a grant declines over time, eventually leading to an increased rate of scientific citation. (Citation: http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/working_papers/20948f9816e83ffd917e0f93fd50.pdf)

Scott Stern's profile

SciSIP Award # 0738394 with Jeffrey Furman and Fiona Murray


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