Engineering Educational Opportunity:
Impacts of 1970s and 1980s Policies to Increase the Share of Black College Graduates with Major in Engineering or Computer Science
Catherine J. Weinberger, University of California Santa Barbara firstname.lastname@example.org
Forthcoming in U.S. Engineering in the Global Economy, edited by Richard Freeman and Hal Salzman, National Bureau of Economic Research/University of Chicago Press
Opportunities for black students to study engineering were quite limited until a string of policies enacted during the 1970s and 1980s opened doors. These changes occurred at different times in different parts of the country. The graphic shown here describes changes that were concentrated in a few Northern institutions during the 1970s, followed by rapid expansion of the six engineering programs at historically black campuses (HBCU6) and opening of additional opportunities in the early 1980s. Several southern states and many northern institutions did not educate black engineering students until even later. The legacy of these patterns of change can be observed in current labor market data, revealing high current wages among individuals trained during these historic periods of expanded educational opportunity.
Patenting and Policy Drivers in the Wind Energy Industry, 1974-‐2009.
Wind patents shown as a percent of patenting across all sectors (blue trend). U.S.Federal R&D dedicated to wind technology (upper half, green) shows a large investment or responding with the DOE/NASA large turbine development program in the early 1980s. A substantial investment tax credit was in place in California during the same time period. The production tax credit was enacted in 1992; by the
turn of the century, it was being renewed on a short-‐term (annual or bi-‐annual) basis, lapsing three times. The number of states with renewable portfolio standards (RPSs, lower half, red) has increased markedly over the past decade, and appears to be most correlated with the recent increase in patenting rate.
Further analysis can be found in Horner et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 044032 doi:10.1088/1748-‐9326/8/4/044032
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